Date: 2020-05-04 12:59:06
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Special Thanks to my team and Nicholas Norwitz – Oxford PhD Researcher and Harvard Med Student – for working diligently on research as well!
Electrolyte Depletion During Fasting
Study – The American Journal of Medicine
This study, entitled, “Fasting—A review with emphasis on the electrolytes” stated that:
Potassium excretion is rapid during the early part of fasting and then tapers off to a constant level of about 10 to 15 mEq/day = 390 to 585mg/day
Sodium excretion is also enhanced early in fasting, declining progressively to between 1 and 15 mEq/day = 23 to 345mg/day (losses that persist even through prolonged caloric deprivation)
During a prolonged fast, your kidneys can excrete magnesium quite quickly – in a study from the The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, the kidneys of participants on a 2 month fast, were excreting magnesium at a rate 4-5 times higher than normal
The average magnesium loss per day when it comes to fasting (typically) ranges from ~80mg to ~200mg (per The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, respectively)
When we have lower insulin levels, our kidneys excrete more sodium, which can lead to a lower sodium/potassium ratio – sodium is the major cation (positively charged ion) found outside the cell and regulates the total amount of water in the body
Potassium is dependent on sodium to be effective…
In water, potassium (K) ionizes and gains one positive charge (K+)
This property allows potassium concentration gradients to create electric currents that are absolutely required for muscle cells (skeletal, intestinal, & cardiac) to contract and for neurons to fire action potentials and communicate with each other.
Potassium and Neuron/Nerve Function – “Reset Button” Analogy
Neurons and nerves work by firing electrical signals to one another called “action potentials.” To create these action potentials, they need to create an electrical current, which they do by changing the concentrations of ions – sodium and potassium – across their cell membranes to change “electrochemical gradients” and, thereby, change voltage.
By letting potassium out of the cell (potassium is more concentrated inside cells than outside cells, while sodium is the opposite), the neuron resets its voltage so it can fire another action potential.
Magnesium, as we know, is a cofactor in over 350 enzymatic reactions in the body – it also plays a role in transporting calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes
What is called ATP is often actually Mg-ATP
Magnesium vs Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
Per a study in the Journal Hypertension, magnesium blocks mainly N-type calcium channels at nerve endings, and thus inhibits norepinephrine release, which decreases blood pressure
Another study, published in Anesthesiology, found that magnesium inhibits the hypertensive but not the cardiotonic actions of low-dose epinephrine
How to do Intermittent Fasting: Complete Guide: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLVf3d0rqqY&t=315s
Complete Women’s Guide to Intermittent Fasting: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNWhScV5b4g&t=270s
Fasting Guidelines: What You CAN and CANNOT Drink: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gytioR19Qo&t=16s
Nicholas Norwitz – Oxford PhD Researcher and Harvard Med Student:
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