Date: 2020-07-16 06:38:56
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Sugar & Fat Cells
Sugar causes stem cells to turn into fat cells (Step 1), rather than bone cells or cartilage cells. Sugar then causes the mature fat cell to become insulin resistant (Step 2; this also leads to a further increase in blood glucose and insulin resistance elsewhere in the body) and causes sugar to release proinflammatory factors that harm other organs (Step 3).
Cramer C. et al. Stem Cell and Development 2010: In this study, the scientists took stromal stem cells and treated them with increasing concentrations of glucose. They observed that, as they added more glucose, fewer stem cells became osteoblasts (A) and chondrocytes (B) and more stem cells became adipocytes (C). There were several more nuances to the study that are less important for your audience. I’ve outlined the key data bars in red. These are stem cells derived from non-diabetic people. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20380516
Composed of 3 main chemical ingredients: phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol
Nature, 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231862 – Nick
This paper demonstrates that certain artificial sweeteners mess up the gut microbial ecosystem, causing glucose intolerance and paving the way for metabolic disease.
The researchers behind this paper began by examining what happened to different groups of mice fed any of three different artificial sweeteners (saccharin, sucralose, and aspartame) as compared to mice fed normal sugars (glucose and sucrose). Worryingly, all of the mice that were fed the artificial sweeteners quickly developed glucose intolerance, a harbinger of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disease.
The researchers also noted that the artificial sweeteners altered the mice’s gut bacteria. To test to see if the change in the gut bacteria caused the artificial sweetener-induced metabolic disruption, the researchers transplanted the gut bacteria from the mice fed artificial sweeteners to mice that had no gut bacteria. Sure enough, the recipient mice became glucose intolerant as well, proving the change in gut bacteria was mediating the negative health effects of the artificial sweeteners. But mice are mice and humans are humans. If the story stopped there, maybe we could shrug off the results and play ignorant, enjoying our Splenda in our morning coffee guilt free. The researchers next examined whether there was an association between artificial sweetener intake and poor health in humans. Sure enough, a higher intake of artificial sweeteners was associated with a greater weigh-to-hip ratio, higher fasting blood sugar, and higher HbA1c.
To prove the causative effect of the artificial sweeteners in humans, the researchers gave 7 healthy people who did not normally consume artificial sweeteners, foods containing artificial sweeteners for 1 week. In just 1 week, 4 of the 7 people developed glucose intolerance (c). What’s more, when the microbiomes from these people were transferred into mice without microbiomes, those mice also became glucose intolerant (g).
Sports drinks can be beneficial for athletes and anyone participating in prolonged, intense workouts
A prospective study from the journal Obesity looked at the association between sport drink consumption & weight gain in over 7,500 children and teens and noted that those who regularly drank sports drinks weighed significantly more than their peers
When fructose is metabolized, it turns into free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides, which get stored as fat
Fructose converts to activated glycerol (g-3-p), which is used to turn FFAs into triglycerides – The more g-3-p you have, the more fat you store
Nicholas Norwitz – Oxford PhD Researcher and Harvard Med Student:
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